The portable devices market has experienced huge growth in their user base, particularly the smartphone market, as well as rapid development of the technologies that go into these portable devices. This growth has motivated researchers to effectively use the various components of such devices to develop different applications. One emerging application to come from this is using smartphones to navigate users in shopping centers or retail stores while they use a shopping cart or stroller. To achieve this, the user would place their smartphone in the cart/stroller, whether directly, or inside a bag or purse. Cart Navigation using portable devices is a challenging task since INS will not provide acceptable accuracy, and the conventional PDR is not appropriate to be applied when the device is not on the user body or directly sensing motion related to it. The required information can’t be obtained or extracted from the collected data without a pre-processing step using appropriate signal processing techniques and disturbance/noise filtering. In this paper, an enhanced dead reckoning positioning technique for cart navigation using portable devices is proposed. Dead reckoning using data from accelerometers and gyroscope sensors is the key to making this application functional. Additionally, any available absolute positioning information, upon availability, can be integrated with the proposed cart dead reckoning technique to further enhance the navigation solution. To assess the accuracy of the dead reckoning technique, the application was tested against various scenarios. The datasets were collected by a variety of subjects using different types of carts and strollers with various smartphones. The smart phones were placed in different orientations and misalignment angles, covering different speeds of users. Over 1000 cart/stroller datasets were obtained to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed technique and its suitability for retail stores indoor navigation using portable devices in cart/stroller. The proposed algorithm shows competitive positioning performance of the portable devices in cart in terms of accuracy, reliability, and availability.

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